Top: Iran revolution: ‘I wore a hijab and head-banged to Nirvana’


Feranak Amidi as a teenager, wearing a hijab (L) and in Western clothing (R)

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Feranak Amidi

On my first day of college in Iran we walked down a poorly-lit hall. I used to be holding my mom’s hand and crying. She was crying too. On my head I had a black hood, referred to as a maghnaeh, overlaying my hair. I used to be six years outdated and terrified. This was nothing like my kindergarten in Los Angeles.

I used to be born in the summertime of 1979 in California, just a few months after Iran’s Islamic Revolution; my mom was in her early 20s and my grandmother was 50.

Tens of millions of Iranian ladies took half within the revolution, standing shoulder-to-shoulder with the lads, however quickly afterwards the tide turned towards them. A few of the primary rights ladies had received through the regime of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi had been revoked instantly.

The Household Safety Act, which had given ladies the precise to divorce, was nullified and a compulsory costume code requiring all ladies to put on the hijab was launched.

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The rebellion towards the shah and the revolution had scattered our household the world over.

I moved again to Iran with my dad and mom in 1984, proper in the course of the eight-year warfare with neighbouring Iraq and one of the ideologically inflexible durations within the nation’s current historical past.

The costume code for girls was strict; vibrant colors, lipstick, nail varnish or displaying a strand of hair might get you arrested.

“I believe the toughest factor for me was the hijab. I might by no means settle for it,” my mom says. “I by no means adopted the strict costume code dictated by the state. I attempted onerous to have my very own fashion.”

My grandmother additionally struggled with the adjustments when she returned to Iran from the UK just a few years after the revolution.

“I felt like I had moved to a totally completely different nation, it was nothing like earlier than,” she recollects.

‘Nothing like my faculty days’

Each morning earlier than class we lined up within the schoolyard, raised our tiny fists within the air and repeated the phrases of our headmistress, who shouted right into a megaphone: “Dying to America! Dying to Iraq and Saddam Hussein! Dying to England!”

“The primary day I took you to high school I used to be shocked and disenchanted,” my mom says.

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Feranak Amidi

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Feranak, aged 6, sporting a hijab in her ID card photograph

It was fairly completely different from her personal time as a younger woman in Iran. My mom attended a faculty based by French Christian missionaries, the place the ladies wore cute uniforms, performed sports activities and music, sang and danced.

“The atmosphere of your faculty was miserable and unhappy,” she says. “It was nothing just like the playful atmosphere I remembered from my faculty days.”

My grandmother was a part of the primary era of women who attended public colleges in Iran within the 1930s. Till then most makes an attempt to open up women colleges had failed resulting from fierce opposition by the clergy, who believed they’d grow to be dens of indecency.

“I used to be fond of college. It was enjoyable and I am unable to bear in mind something disagreeable about it,” my grandmother says.

Beneath the shah faith was a non-public matter. After the revolution, faith turned a part of the general public sphere.

You had been inspired to point out your devotion to Islam as an indication of allegiance to the regime. Girls needed to costume extra modestly, males grew beards and other people prayed in work locations out of concern of being branded anti-revolutionary. The state managed probably the most personal facets of our lives.

Residing a double life

At colleges, academics had been advised to quiz college students about their personal lives.

We had been requested whether or not our dad and mom drank alcohol, listened to music, owned a video participant, performed playing cards, danced or took off their hijabs at mixed-gender household events; all acts prohibited by legislation.

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Feranak Amidi

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As an adolescent, Feranak listened to Western rock music regardless of it being banned in Iran

Most of our dad and mom inspired us to lie and I began to learn to dwell a double life.

I wore the hijab to class and head-banged to Nirvana in my bed room at dwelling. I shouted “Dying to America!” in school and acquired Weapons N’ Roses cassettes from underground music sellers.

Rising up beneath the shah my mom had extra social freedom.

“I might select what I needed to put on, the music I needed to hearken to and so forth, however there have been nonetheless many limitations for girls,” she recollects.

My mom married when she was 17, which was not unusual even beneath the shah. Girls had been nonetheless anticipated to evolve to inflexible social norms and the gender hole within the workforce was huge. But the winds of change had been blowing.

“The shah was attempting to alter issues and make society extra fashionable,” says my mom.

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Feranak Amidi

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Feranak says her life has been fairly completely different from that skilled by most Iranian ladies

My grandmother grew up in an prosperous household and was uncovered to Western tradition, however she was nonetheless very a lot certain to custom.

She was married off after faculty and went on to have six youngsters. She additionally did not have many decisions in her life. Marriage and motherhood had been nearly all a girl might do.

In comparison with my mom and grandmother I’ve had extra decisions in life; I bought a college diploma, emigrated alone once I was 30, lived with my accomplice for 4 years, and bought married at 35. However this isn’t the life expertise of a mean Iranian girl.

Officers say greater than 50% of college college students are ladies and that they’re suspending marriage till their late 20s. However ladies make up solely 19% of the workforce. Most ladies nonetheless have little alternative however to get married and grow to be housewives.

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Magnum Photographs

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Many ladies’s lives are nonetheless certain by the strict gender norms of previous many years

Feminine illustration in parliament is barely 6% and girls have subsequent to no rights in marriage. Strict gender roles are propagated by state-run media and girls are advised that their place is at dwelling with their youngsters.

4 many years after the revolution, it’s onerous to say whether or not Iranian ladies have made any actual progress. One factor is obvious: for each step ahead there have been just a few steps again, however the setbacks have by no means discouraged ladies to push forward.

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